Metabolism and cancer

The link between metabolism and cancer is, perhaps unsuprisingly, very strong.


  1. Explain the “Warburg effect”
  2. Discuss the meaning of the term oncometabolite.
  3. How does the most famous oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, exert its activity? Discuss the chemistry.
  4. From the list of these additional oncometabolites (glucose, fumarate, succinate, sarcosine, glutamine, asparagine, choline, and lactate) select one and describe its action.
  5. Explain the the relationship between the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cancer.
  6. Explain the NRF-Keap pathway.